In 1578, more than half a century after Ferdinand Magellan and his men landed in Cebu, a Spanish priest named Esteban Ortiz arrived in Binangonan del Ampon and planted a wooden cross symbolizing the introduction of Spanish colonial rule at the place. In 1696, Don Diego Mangilaya, a native chieftain developed the settlement into a community and built a wooden chapel at the spot where Nunong Karugtong fell asleep. Since its establishment, the area has been attacked by Moro pirates, and visited by typhoons and cholera epidemics as recent as 2004. In 1803, Kapitan Pedro de León affiliated Binagonan del Ampon to the province of Nueva Ecija and in 1850, Kapitan Rafael Orozco withdrew Infanta from the province of Nueva Ecija and joined it with the province of Laguna to the west. In 1835, Binangonan del Ampon was renamed “Infanta” by Captain Juan Salvador in honor of the saint “Jesus Infante” (Child Jesus). All the inhabitants of Infanta were given Spanish surnames pursuant to a Royal Decree of 11 November 1848.
On July 20, 1898 a group of Infanta Katipuneros headed by Colonel Pablo Astilla attacked the Spanish forces holed up at the limestone convent and after several days of siege and fighting, the Spanish soldiers surrendered. By virtue of the 10 December 1898 Paris Treaty of Peace, American soldiers occupied the town of Infanta and appointed Kapitan Carlos Ruidera Azcarraga as the first “town presidente.” He was followed by Rufino Ortiz in 1903 who withdrew Infanta from the province of Laguna and joined it with the province of Tayabas. He also ordered the planting of coconut trees in the barrios (now barangays) of Infanta. During the administration of town “presidente” Gregorio Rutaquio (1911 -1916), he constructed the “Gabaldon type” of school house. From 1923-1928, Don Florencio Potes became town “presidente”.
He constructed the concrete municipal building and the first telegraph office of the town. From 1935 to 1939, Mr. Fabian Solleza served as town “presidente”. During his incumbency, the Infanta–Famy road traversing the Sierra Madre from Infanta to Laguna and Rizal provinces was constructed. Also, piped water from a spring reservoir in barrio (barangay) Gumian was installed. In December, 1941 the Japanese
Imperial forces was occupied in the town of Infanta. In May 25, 1945, the liberation by combined Filipino and American soldiers entered in the town was supported by the guerrilla fighters fought the Japanese Imperial forces until the end of World War II. In 1950, the municipality was made the seat of the Roman Catholic Territorial Prelature of Infanta.
Infanta is politically subdivided into 36 barangays: 7 urban and 29 rural.